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Census 1900

  • Information concerning Procedures etc for the Census taken in December 1900

  • Enumeration machines at work

  • Salaries and expenses

  • Appendix a.

  • Memo no 2

    1. The delimiting of wards and hiring of census takers

    2. Other preparatory measures concerning the census

    3. The layout of the forms. Their completion and submission and the filling in of main lists for the wards.

    4. Subsequent census work

    5. Census expenses

    6. Remarks on the completion of form 1 above

  • Form 3. Agricultural form

    Remarks on the completion of form 3.

  • Excerpt from Instructions for census takers (in rural areas)

    1. Preparatory work

    2. Taking the census

    3. Post census work

  • Memo no 4


    Information concerning Procedures etc for the Census taken in December 1900

    (By Office Director Jonas Haanshus)


    The ordinary census on December 3 1900 is the 12th in the series of censuses taken in Norway, the first taken on August 15 1769. Detailed procedures etc used in the ten first censuses were published in 1882 (pp 205ff) by the Statistical Bureau’s “Bidrag til en norsk befolkningsstatik” (NOS C No1). Similar information on the 11th ordinary census can be found in printed volumes with statistical results from the 1891 census (NOS III, No 284 pp 123 ff). Since the present census mainly is compatible with the two previous with respect to the object and procedures of enumeration, we shall here give if possible a brief description. However, the treatment of the material brought forth by the census is very different from earlier methodology, which is why we shall describe this more fully below.

                The Royal Decree of August 8 1900 laid down that an ordinary census should be taken starting on Monday December 3 1900, as funded by Parliament December 5 1899. Cf also appendix a in the decree for detailed rulings on Census procedures etc, and the basic proposal printed in DepartementsTidende 1900, pp 705-713. This census, as well as those from 1876 and 1891 combines the de jure and the de facto principle. Thus the questionnaires allow the counting of both the residents and the population present. A particular enumeration was carried out aboard Norwegian ships abroad.

                Because of the new aggregation technique, the layout of the forms was different from the individual sheets used in 1891; instead the questionnaire type containing lists of the persons living in one house (rural) or one domicile (urban), more like the house lists used in 1865 and 1876.

                The person level questions were the same as in 1891, except that the question about spousal kinship was dropped in 1900. However, some new detail was added to the questions about housing in the towns. Cf forms 1 to 6 for further detail. [Link!!]


    The 1900 census procedures were more or less identical to those used in 1891, both in rural and urban districts, as well as aboard ships.

                Rural enumeration districts were defined by municipality borders, and split into census tracts, mostly based on the school districts. One census taker, primarily a school teacher, was assigned to each tract.

                The vicar chaired the rural census board with the bailiff and mayor as other members.

                In the towns the census was managed by the magistrate.

                There were 4833 rural and 1118 urban census takers (in 1891 4167 and 992). In several towns the Statistical Bureau could employ voluntary and unsalaried census takers. The procedures for census taking as well as more detailed rules and remarks to be followed by census takers can be found in a number of memos sent out to the census boards and census takers, and can be found as appendix a, f m and n. [Link!!]

                The enumeration of sailors aboard Norwegian ships bound for or in Norwegian harbours at census time, as well as crews aboard foreign vessels in Norwegian harbours was carried out by customs officers, cf appendix o and q. [Link!!]


    Preliminary census counts were ready by January 22 1901, as communicated to the Bureau by telegraph or phone. The pamphlet Preliminary Enumeration of the Resident Population December 3 1900 was published on January 23. The first towns to send in their results were Drøbak (December 5), Florø and Larvik (December 6) and the municipalities Steigen, Byneset and Buviken (December 7).

                The provisional census office was active from October 1900 until June 15 1903, and was headed by a Statistical Bureau civil servant.

                The aggregate statistics were compiled by 90 part time employed persons, 26 men and 64 women, including a specialist who did the agricultural statistics. The maximum number working was 65, partly salaried on a monthly and an hourly basis.

     

    As mentioned above, these aggregates were mostly compiled with a new method, viz the electric compilation introduced in the US and a few other countries. This consists of the preparation of specifically designed enumeration cards and the ensuing mechanical counting and sorting using electric machines. One card, viz the figure below, is prepared for each individual.

                The card contains 288 different fields, marked with letters, digits or icons corresponding to characteristics such as place of residence, sex, age, marital status, occupation, birth place, religion and nationality, the information for each person being indicated by a punched hole in the relevant field. The hole is made with special punching machine, illustrated in the drawing below.

     

                When cards have been prepared for a sufficient number of municipalities and towns, the cards are brought over to electric counting machines, as seen on the following drawing. Using these complicated, American enumeration machines, the clocks attached to the machine count the statistical characteristics corresponding to the different punched holes. By tuning the machine, the combination of e g age, marital status, occupation, birthplace etc can be counted simultaneously. For each card put into the machine, one pointers in the clocks corresponding to the relevant holes moves one stroke from 0 to 99, and the shorter pointer moves one stroke for each hundred counted, so that in all 9999 individuals can be counted on one clock. At the same time, the cards are sorted into the pigeon holes in the special sorting machine to the right of the counting machine.

                In order to compile the necessary aggregates the cards may need to pass several times through the machine. The cards were punched on 21 machines, each used part time by two women. An average of 120 cards were punched per hour, this being paid as piece work. The punched cards were proof read.

                Three enumeration machines were used, two with 70 clocks and one with forty, each ran by three women with a total of 12 working hours on a rotating basis. An average of 700 cards were processed per hour, including time spent to read the clocks and note the results. In this connection particular aggregates were made by sorting the punched cards manually. In conclusion, the results of this electric processing method has proved very satisfactory, especially noting the recent introduction of the system.


    Enumeration machines at work

    A list of the tables contained in the six volume series of publications from the 1900 census can be found at the start of volume 6 [in Norwegian and French]. Besides the printed tables, there are a number of potentially interesting unprinted ones, containing the following information:


    Viz volume 2:

    Table 2. Population present by sex and age; also aggregated by five year age groups.

    Table 5: More detailed information on population present by sex age and marital status (for rural and urban districts in the provinces); also aggregated for each municipality and town.

    Table 6. Results concerning population present by year of birth (for the nation, its rural and urban municipalities combined and the capital); also aggregated for each province and its major towns.


    Viz volume 3:

    Table 1. Number and kind of inhabited houses with population present and resident; aslo aggregated for each municipality and town.

    Table 3. Population present in auxiliary and barn like buildings; also aggregated by municipality.


    Viz volume 5:

    Table 4. Detailed data on occupation and status for persons present aged 15 and over; also aggregated by major regions.

    Table 9. Detailed data on persons present aged 15 and over by occupation; also aggregated for each municipality and town.


    Viz volume 6:

    Table 1 and 2. Data for municipalities, towns and major regions were aggregated for the same variables as for the nation.

    Tables have also been aggregated for municipalities and towns excepting the capital, for married women by five year age groups combined with their men’s age and occupation for some significant groups.


    Salaries and expenses

    According to the abovementioned decree, the payment to census takers and boards, was set in correspondence with detailed suggestion from the Bureau approved by the ministry. In the towns the census takers - where relevant - received a wage of up to Nkr 4.00 per day or Nkr 0.50 per hour, in exceptional cases increased somewhat. The magistrates were refunded their expenses for auxiliary employees etc.


    The total expenses for the towns were:

    Refunding magistrates’ expenses                   Nkr 12,528.67

    Census takers                                                   “ 27,106.50

    Sum                                                                Nkr 39,695.17


    In the rural districts census takers usually received a compensation up to Nkr 3.00 per full work day or Nkr 0.40 per hour, under extraordinary circumstances somewhat more. The census board members were compensated per day travelling and transport according to ordinary regulations, as well as for their expenses. The bailiffs’ compensation per work day was averaged at Nkr 5.00.


    The total expenses for the rural districts were:

    The census boards                                          Nkr 32,363.05

    (including 18,067 to the bailiffs, 7010,57 for their travels and 7285,48 for mayors or vicars’ travels)

    Census takers:                                                 Nkr 104,683.20

    Sum                                                                Nkr 137,046.25


    Thus the census expenses for the nation totalled at Nkr 176,741.42.

    These figures are specified by province in the appendixes.


    Parliament in 1899 and 1901 granted a total of Nkr 335,000 to the carrying out of the census and aggregate work. (Cf Storth.-Forhandlinger 1899-1900, 1 b part, St. Prp. Nr. 1, Main item VI, chap. 6; 6 a part, Indst. S. Nr. 60; 7de Del, S. 332-333; 1900-1901, I a part, St. Prp. Nr. 1, Main item VI, chap. 2; 6te part, Indst. 8. Nr. 95 og 124; 7de part, 8. 772 og 1713; 1901-1902, 1 a part 2 St. Prp. Nr. 1, main part VI, Kap. 2; 6 a part, Indst. S. Nr. 52; 7de part, S. 494.)

     

    The grant was spent this way:

    1. Expenses to prepare the census                              Nkr 14,044.46

    2. Expenses taking the census                                     “ 176,741.42

    3. Preparations of results                                             “ 119,228.47

    4. Printing of tables                                                     “ 9,305.70

    5. Other expenses                                                        “ 15,679.95

    Total                                                                           Nkr 335,000.00

     

    In item 3, preparation of results, is included the provision of two electric machines, which together with accessories (punching machnines etc) cost kr 14,400.00. The Statistical Bureau have taken over these machines for future use; on the other hand the Bureau’s printing budget has paid for the cost of printing the present Main Overview with the sum of kr 1,100.00.

     

     

    Appendix a.

    The Statistical Bureau. Census December 3 1900.

    Memo no 2

    J.no F9.00

     

    By royal decree of August 8, this year has been decided:

     

    1. That an ordinary Census will be taken the next December, starting on Monday December 3 and to be continued during the next weekdays until its completion.

    2. That together with this census information on livestock and the amount of grain and potato planted etc.

    3. That the census in rural districts will be directed by the vicar as chairman and well as the respective bailiff and mayor, and carried out with the assistance of school teachers and others found competent by the census board.

    4. That the census in the cities and minor towns should be directed by the magistrate and taken by the pauper administration’s ward masters or others found competent by the magistrate.

    5. That in rural districts as well as in the towns, farm and house owners, house monitors, heads of households and others are urged to assist in the filling in of census forms.

    6. That customs officers take a census of sailors aboard Norwegian vessels, which at census time are on their way to or in Norwegian harbours, including the crews on foreign vessels present in the nation’s waters.

    7. That the Norwegian and Swedish consulates carry out a census of sailors aboard Norwegian vessels, which at census time are in or on their way to foreign harbours.

    8. That the census tabulations should be communicated in accordance with the included forms 1-6.

    9. That the filled in forms should be sent to the Statistical Central Bureau as soon as the census taking is ended and at the latest by the end of January 1901.

    10. That the Statistical Central Bureau is authorized to put into affect the necessary further measures, including decisions on minor changes in the layout of the questionnaires, and the economic compensation to magistrates, bailiffs, census takers and others, in accordance with rules laid down by the Department of the Interior.

     

    In accordance with this authorisations we declare:

    The vicar should as soon as possible after receiving this memo settle a meeting with the relevant bailiff and mayor in order to make an agreement about the preparations necessary in this matter.

     

    The plan for the census in the rural districts is briefly this:

    1. The municipality is divided into clearly delimited census wards; for each a census taker is hired.

    2. The collection of the basic information starts on Monday morning December 3 1900 and is completed as soon as possible. The census taker visits each single inhabited house in order to fill in the data in forms 1 and 3 on location from information provided by the inhabitants, or the collect the questionnaires completed by the heads of households after having verified the contents.

    3. As soon as these basic data is collected, the census taker creates a ward main list (form 4) providing the populations size in his ward. Then all forms are sent to the census board for verification, and they send in all the information together with a municipality summary list (form 5).

     

    Further guidelines:

     

    {Important differences for the urban census is included in the rural instructions above and put in brackets on the basis of separate instructions for the towns. The agricultural form was more summary for the towns.}

     

    1. The delimiting of wards and hiring of census takers

    The municipality boundaries are defined according to the jurisdiction of December 3 1900. When dividing the municipality into wards, the speedy and rational taking of the census should be born in mind. Presumably, the school districts will provide a convenient basis. However, some school districts had better be split into two or more wards, e g when in such smaller wards, census takers living closer can be hired.

                {The enumeration of persons on board ships in the town’s harbour will be performed by customs officers, who will receive the special memo about this from the Bureau, cf the decree’s point 6.

                In order to provide information on the relative location of the wards and their approximate borders, the census board should also send in a draft map, showing how the municipality is divided into wards, giving their numbers and approximate location.

                As census takers teachers in elementary school {ward overseers} and other competent persons should be selected. Qualities to be stressed when selecting census takers are practical understanding of the questions on the forms, accuracy, knowledge of local conditions in the ward, and also that the taker writes clearly and rather quickly, and also that he is able to complete the census work speedily.

                {We ask the magistrate to use voluntary census takers where competent and interested persons can be found, each doing 20 bigger or 40 smaller houses.}

                The census board must give their census takers necessary guidance both with respect to the rational taking of the census and the contents of the questionnaires.

     

    2. Other preparatory measures concerning the census

     

    Before starting, the census taker should plan the succession of his visits to the inhabited places. A copy of the farm tax list for the ward must be given him to be used when planning and during the census taking itself. Please note:

     

    1. For all municipalities in the provinces from Smålenene to and including Troms we incluce five copies of the printed farm tax list. By splitting these by page, the census board can give the census takers the part relevant for each ward. If some of the places belong to another municipality, we ask that a couple of copies of this page is sent to the census board there.

                Since some changes in property ownership have happened after the farm tax lists were printed, we provide a bound copy with correction sent to the Ministry of finances by the local judges until the date given, and we ask that the other tax list copies are corrected accordingly. Supposedly, the bailiff can provide any later farm splits etc, so that the lists become as complete as possible. We ask that in the bound copy, which is to be shipped back to us, it is noted which farm parts are uninhabited, as well as which properties have been transferred to another municipality.

                {Before distribution the magistrate should provide the urban house lists and person lists with the ward number, street name and property number.}

     

    2. For the province of Finnmark [where the state owned all land] we have sent to the bailiffs Letter no 1, dated the 29th of the previous month, the lists of the assessed properties in the rural districts, asking that they add later property splits or other changes. The relevant pages are to be shared between the census takers. Subsequently the lists must be returned to us.

                Since the attainment of complete and precise results are especially crucial in a census, it is important that it is supported by contributions from the population. Thus the census board should see to that the census is made known among the population in the municipality, and awake the common interest.

                More detailed actions to this end must be decided by the census board, so we only provide some suggestions:

    1. We ask that the vicar find occasion to announce the census after Service on Sunday December 2.

    2. More information might be given from the church hill, where in addition census forms can be distributed and perhaps filled in by the heads of household or others.

    3. Census forms can be sent with school children or otherwise to domiciles where they can be sent without extra cost.

                If possible, the editors of local newspapers should be asked to recommend the commoners to participate in the census.

     

    {The urban census takers should distribute the forms a few days before census day, asking the house owners and people renting flats to complete them, so that they are ready for picking up by December 3. Then the census takers must check on location to see that they have been properly filled in, and otherwise complete or correct them.}

     

    Forms 1 and 3 (form 2 in the towns) have been sent from the Bureau to the census boards, and should be distributed to the census takers according to the number of domiciles in each ward. However, each census taker should get more copies than needed. The census board should keep some copies for extra supply where needed.

                In municipalities where the population’s ethnicity is partly Sami, Finnish or mixed, we supply a special form I with 16 fields (the form’s page 3) which should be used in the Tromsø region. We also send a number of these forms to census boards in southern municipalities where there are persons belonging to these ethnic groups, plus the ordinary form 1 with 14 fields.

                If the number of forms provided is too little, we ask that the Bureau is informed immediately about the number of extra forms needed.

     

    3. The layout of the forms. Their completion and submission and the filling in of main lists for the wards.

    Please confer the remarks on the forms, as well as the detailed instructions for census takers provided in this shipment.

     

    {Form 2 (House list) comprises one house, as each property number is thus defined, so that back and side buildings etc are included in the same house list, cf the form’s first page. Form 3 is attached to form 2 and takes information about seed and livestock etc in the same house or property.}

     

    4. Subsequent census work

    As soon as the census takers have delivered all completed forms to the bailiff {the magistrate}, he should check them to the extent he finds necessary to make sure that the lists have been properly completed. He should especially check:

    1. Form 4, main list of the population size, should be compared to the farm tax list to ensure that its all farm parts are found in form 4, if they are not noted as uninhabited.

    2. Also the names of domiciles and persons in form 4 should be controlled, so that the bailiff from his knowledge of the localities can note any possible omissions of new farms or other inhabited places not mentioned in the farm tax list. In addition, he should ensure that travellers, sailors, fishermen etc who might have been in the municipality at census time and who are known to the bailiff, have been included in the relevant ward.

    3. Next he should check whether form 1 and especially fields 4 and 9 have been correctly filled in. In regions where the population consist of Sami and Finnish people besides Norwegians, please check fields 15 and 16.

    4. Also control form 3 with respect to livestock and other farm products, as well as the population sums for each part of the ward given in section 2 of form 4.

                Next the bailiff {the magistrate} must provide a main summary for the whole municipality (form 5), where he also specifies the administrative divisions etc. If there is a special “chapter district” (small ecclesiastical division) with specific borders inside any parish, we ask that this district’s population size be reported in the main summary, also referring to the relevant wards and person lists (form 1).

                If any part of the municipality is to be transferred to another administrative entity from January 1 1901, please mark the relevant wards and person lists in the main summary.

                When all records on the population size have been provided and controlled, they should be given to the whole census board for inspection, and next the board’s chairman should send them to the Statistical Central Bureau. Forms not used should be returned under separate cover.

                A preliminary statement on the size of the de jure population must be reported as soon as possible to the Census office. Where possible, use telegraph or telephone. The Census office has phone number 3685, manned from 10 -2 o’clock.

     

    5. Census expenses

    We ask that the census board suggest the size of the economic compensation given to census takers as well as the necessary travelling expenses.

                We must mention that these expenses during previous censuses have been relatively bigger in Norway than in other countries and still increasing rapidly, and accordingly must stress the need to accomplish the census work as quickly and cheaply as can be done in an accurate way.

                Rapid census taking is of significance for enumeration precision since it eliminates much of the uncertainty related to migration during census time. Remark that the forms now is laid out more conveniently than at the previous census, which should also save enumeration time.

                The census board’s budget proposal must be followed by data about the number of days each taker has spent enumerating, as well as information about other circumstances that should be taken into consideration for each census taker. In the exceptional cases where the census taker needed transportation, the bailiff must testify to the necessity and correctness of the expenses according to the distance travelled. Providing this information must naturally not delay the sending of the census material.

                The bailiffs’ census travels will be compensated according to official regulations, and their work will be compensated according to time spent. If the other members of the census board must travel to accomplish census related tasks, they will get travelling and per diem compensation according to regulations. Expenses to provide information by phone or telegraph as well as other necessary expenses will be compensated according to accounts sent in..

                We conclude that the urban census will be administered by the magistrate as previously done.

                Notification that this letter and the accompanying forms have been received, should be provided by the first mail.

                All letters concerning the census, as well as packages containing relevant documents, should be sent to this address: The statistical Census bureau, Kristiania V., Kort Adeler’s street, and marked thus: “Viz the census 1900".

     

    Kristiania, October 15 1900

    A.N. Kiær

    Jonas Haanshus

     





    6. Remarks on the completion of form 1 above

     

    1. In form 1 all persons are included who were in the house during the night between December 2 and 3; travellers are also included; as well as persons provisionally absent (specifically marked in fields 4, for travellers or absent persons also in fields 5 or 6). Children born before 12 o’clock in the night are included. Persons who died before this moment are not included; they are included, however, if they died between this moment and the picking up of the census forms.

    2. If in any place there are more than one inhabited house, (cf the first page of form 1, item 2) this is noted in field 2, right above the name of the first person who lived in each house Also specify the name or type of the house (such as main building, side building, retired parents’ house etc).

    3. For each house each family household is noted with its number. After the persons belonging to this, the single lodgers are included, and they are marked with an X to signify that they do not belong to the family household. Lodgers eating dinner at the family table are included in the family household; other lodgers, however, are marked as single. If two siblings or others keep house together, the are considered to be a family household. If any family member or any servant live in a separate house (e g the servants building), the number of the household they belong to is noted within parentheses (e g household no 1).

                These rules are also applied to group quarters, e g hospitals, pauper houses, prisons etc. The quarter’s administrative and other staff is included first, and next the inmates. The type of group quarter must be specified.

    4. Field 4. Persons who lived permanently in the house and were present on December 3, are marked with the letter b; those who were travellers or occasional visitors in the house on December 3 are marked with the letters mt; thoses who lived permanently in the house but absent travelling or visiting, are marked with f.

    5 . Field 7. For the occasional visitors their relationship to the family of the census place is first noted, then their family relationship at home.

    6. Field 8. Unmarried are marked ug, married g, widow(er)s e, separated s and divorcees f. As separated only those are included who have received separation papers, and as divorced only those whose marriage has been ultimately dissolved through court order or administratively.

    7. Field 9. The type of industry or occupation must be accurately specified. For grown children still at home and other relatives as well as for servants specify if they are occupied doing housework, agricultural work, cattle work or other types of work, specifying which. For widows and grown-up unmarried women must be specified if they live from own means or perform any industry, such as lodgings, sewing, trade etc, or if they have any specific occupation.

                For lodgers or visitors the occupation must also be included. For craftsmen and others running industries etc must be specified what kind of industry they run; for instance it is not sufficient to write craftsman, factory owner, factory manager etc, please specify shoemaker, tile works owner, sawmill manager etc.

                For secreataries, clerks, watchmen, engineers, coal shufflers etc must be specified in what kind of trade they are employed. For workers, lodgers and day labourers add the factory etc where they worked at census time or where they worked, e g in agriculture, saw mill, brewery etc.

                Each occupation must be specified so that it is known if the person runs the institution etc as employer or commercially, as independent worker on own account or whether he works in the service of others as manager, foreman, journeyman, apprentice or worker.

                In the case of all such positions which might be both private and public, the character of the position must be noted (e g higher or medium civil servant in the service of the state or municipality, teacher at private school etc). Person living mainly from their fortune, pensions, life interests or public support should be thus characterized together with their occupation, if at all significant.

                Persons previously employed in private enterprise, as civil servants etc, get “fv.” before their occupation.

    8. Field 14. Slow witted persons must not be counted as imbecile.

     

    Appendix c.

     

    (1st page)

     

    Census for Norway December 3 1900

    (The national seal)

    Form 3. Agricultural form

    (Information on seed, livestock etc.)

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . municipality. Ward no . . . . . . . . . . .

    Viz person list no . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Name of domicile (farm, cottage) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

     

    Remarks on the completion of form 3.

    (This form is completed together with the relevant person list.)

    1. If several properties independently assessed for taxation are used jointly, only one form should be completed for these, however noting the tax value assessment for each property; this also goes for assessed out-farms, fields etc.

    2. If the (part of) farm is not independently assessed, but run separately, report the farm no and part no where it is included, adding the word “under” before the farm number. By the name of such parts, add their kind, e g cottar’s place, newly cleared place, rented field. The whole tax assessment should only be reported on the form for the main farm part, also listing the parts assessed together with this farm, thus:

    a. Number of cottars’ places with land (cottars with work obligations) . . . . . . . . . . .

    b. other cottars’ places . . . . . . . . . . .

    c. separately rented parts . . . . . . . . . . .

    d. other farm parts, cultivated without independent taxation . . . . . . . . . . .

    Livestock and seed belonging to parts a - d are reported in the form for each part.

    3. If the same form reports seed and livestock belonging to more than one person, the name and occupation of all these persons must be reported. Then note the seed and livestock for each person using the fields in the same sequence.

    [The agricultural forms from the 1900 census have been lost in a fire.]

     

    {Important differences for the urban census is included in the rural instructions above and put in brackets on the basis of separate instructions for the towns. The agricultural form was more summary for the towns.}

     

    Appendix m

    Census for Norway December 3 1900

    Excerpt from Instructions for census takers (in rural areas)

     

    1. Preparatory work

    When the census taker has received the relevant pages of the farm tax assessment lists for his ward as well as the necessary copies of forms 1, 3 and 4 (form 2 pertains only to towns), he should first plan the order in which to visit the domiciles.

                {A few days before the start of the census, the census taker must distribute the adequate number of forms within his designed area, asking the houseowners and renters to fill them in, so that they are completed on December 3, when their collection starts. The census taker must then control them on location to see that they have been properly completed and if not complete them himself.}

                To the extent the census board finds recommendable, the forms should be sent with school children or otherwise to the domiciles a few days before the start of the census, if this incurs no extra cost. A good occasion in many parishes will be on Sunday December 2, since the questionnaires probably can be distributed after church to heads of households who have not received them in other ways. This distribution is intended to give heads of households and others occasion to study the forms’ questions, have the answers ready, so that when the census taker comes, the forms can be completed quickly, in case they have not already been filled in by the inhabitants themselves.

                Such pre-distribution should also happen to mental asylums, poor houses, hospitals etc, and also usually to big houses for workers, so that the forms can be completed by the managers of these quarters, who should also receive a copy of this instruction. {To bigger qroup quarters the forms should be distributed early, at the latest on November 26.}

                Please do not fold the forms, since this can hamper their post-processing.

     

    2. Taking the census

    The enumeration starts Monday December 3 1900, and is continued uninterrupted on the following weekdays until it is completed, being carried as fast as is compatible with accuracy. This is necessitated by the number of migrants changing domicile soon after December 3, and since it is then may be difficult to reach the correct population size. The present forms are laid out so that they are easier to complete than during the previous census.

                The census taker must visit each single inhabited house in order to fill in the forms’ information on location. In houses where the forms have been distributed before the start of the census and have been completed by the inhabitants themselves, it must be checked that the answers are clear and correct.

                The census taker must control that everyone present in the house on the night before December 3, including unbaptized children, have been listed, cf form 1, page 4, point 1.

                The enumeration should also include those who at this point in time where itinerant on the road or in boat, and who thus had no lodgings in a house. This are counted as present in the house where they first came on December 3 or the next days.

                For those who during the night between December 2 and 3 where aboard a vessel within the borders of the census ward, a person list is completed for the vessel - where there is a customs office by the customs officers, otherwise by the ward’s census taker.

                For every house in which the census taker arrives, he starts by numbering the person list (form 1) in the sequence in which the forms are collected. Remark that every house with its side buildings or outhouses are understood as one contiguous domicile, that no new person list or number should be allocated to an inhabited side building. Then the information is given field by field, considering what is printed on the form itself.

     

    {Form 2 (House list) comprises one house; defined by is tax assessment number, so that side buildings, backhouses etc are included in the same house list, cf the form’s first page. Form 1, the person lists, are to be put inside the house list where they belong.}

     

    Remarks on fields 4 - 6:

    As temporarily absent are counted those (in the house living family members who were absent on December 3) also lodgers, who before their departure had ended their lodging contract, when it is known that they will before long return and continue living in the municipality; these are enumerated in the house where they last had their lodging.

                Servant are counted as living where they serve; students, school children etc where they live to be educated; so if they are at home at census time, they should there be listed as temporarily present.

                Paupers, who are circulating [from farm to farm] are counted as living where they stayed at census time, hospital patients as temporarily present in the hospital, if they have not been stationed their for constant care. Nomadic Sami are counted as living where they stayed at census time. Sailors in foreign shipping, who do not have their own home in Norway, are listed as temporarily absent from their last domicile in this country, unless they are considered to have settled permanently abroad, or constantly sail aboard foreign ships.

                When enumerating the temporarily present and temporarily absent, we must make sure that conditions on December 3 have priority, and not those on the day the census taker comes.

                Concerning field 9 (industry and occupation), being one of the most important in the questionnaire, we refer you to the list in appendix 1, Alphabetic list of occupations which need further specification.

                Concerning field 11 we refer you to appendix 3 below.

                Concerning form 3 consult what is printed on the form itself, noting that there may be seed and gardening on land not belonging to any farm where a person list is filled in. In such cases we must fill in a separate form 3 for these uninhabited land parts. Form 3 should, after completion - be enclosed in the relevant person list.

     

    With respect to nomadic Sami the following additional rules apply:

    Concerning form 1

    Field 4. Nomadic Sami are enumerated as residents where they stay on December 3; if any Sami person for elsewhere momentarily is visiting the Sami family who on this day reside in the relevant census ward, this Sami person is of course considered to be temporarily present.

     

    Concerning form 3 

    The census taker should be critical of the information on the number of reindeer and among other things consider that both husband, wife, children and servants can own reindeer, and this must be listed specifically. He must also be aware that the Sami often watch over other people’s reindeer, these must be listed as belonging to others.

     

    3. Post census work

    When forms 1 and 3 dealt with above have been collected, a main list (form 4) is completed for the census ward, consisting of two parts. The first is meant for the continuous excerpt from the person lists, and the second for a summary of the specific areas in the census ward. In the first part the population size in each inhabited house is reported according to the person lists in the same sequence as these are numbered. In the second part the population size for each sub-area. If one form 4 is insufficient, two are used and these are stitched together or given specific letters.

    All completed forms 1, 3 and 4 are next to be delivered to the bailiff {the magistrate}, sequenced by number and carefully packed. Unused forms are also returned. {The census taker must also follow the more specific instructions given by the magistrate.}

     

    The Statistical Bureau,

    Kristiania in October 1900

     

    {Important differences for the urban census is included in the rural instructions above and put in brackets on the basis of separate instructions in appendix n for the towns.}

     





     

    Appendix q

    The Statistical Central Bureau

    Census December 3 1900

    Memo no 4

    As already informed about in memo no 11 (1900) from the royal Norwegian Government’s Department of Finances and Customs, the following has been decided in a royal decree concerning the taking of an ordinary census in the Kingdom of Norway on December 3 1900:

     

    “That using the customs officers a census is taken of sailors aboard Norwegian vessels which at census time are in or on their way to Norwegian harbours, as well as the men aboard foreign vessels in the Nation’s waters.

                With reference to the above mentioned memo, the Central Bureau announces: Following the regulations in the census, a ship’s list (form 6) is to be completed for each vessel which on December 3 1900 lies inside Norway’s borders, as well as for any Norwegian vessel which at this time is outside the Nation. The ship’s form will include a listing of persons aboard the vessel on December 3, whether they belong to the crew or not.

                With this memo to the customs office is included the number of forms considered necessary. We request that the customs office supply one or where necessary more of this form to:

    1. Any Norwegian or foreign vessel which lies in any of the harbours belonging to the customs office’s district, or out-harbours where there is a customs office (although not unused vessels).

    2. Any Norwegian vessel which has been cleared for sailing abroad and is not supposed to return to Norway before December 3.

    3. Any vessel sailing domestically from the customs district so close to census time and with such destination that it is supposed to be underway on December 3.

    4. Any Norwegian vessel coming from abroad after December 3, but underway at census time and which had not already received the form.

    5. Any Norwegian vessel coming from domestic place after December 3, but underway at census time and which had not already delivered the form.

                When providing the ships in point 2 and 3 with the forms, the ship’s captain should explicitly be asked to complete the form as soon as possible after census time, since especially for passenger steamers it is important that this is done before the passengers aboard leave the ship.

                Concerning foreign vessel, the customs office should ask the relevant consuls to please be intermediaries on this occasion.

                The customs office is asked to check that the properly completed form is returned for every vessel which on December 3 is stationed in the customs office’s district, or which comes there after census time, if it has not previously returned the form, and regardless of whether the ship has received the form through a Norwegian customs office or through one of the Norwegian-Swedish consulates.

                The forms are usually supposed to be filled in by the ships’ captains; if not the customs office is asked to complete them. In order to prevent doubts during the completion, we remark that it is only those persons who on the night before December 3 were aboard, who are to be included on the forms (since those who on this night had lodgings ashore in Norway, will be included in the ordinary census taking place there).

                Those forms received before the middle of February are to be sent to the Statistical Central Bureau under its address: Kristiania V, Kort Adeler’s street, and marked thus: Concerns the 1900 census.

                Those forms coming after this time, are to be sent on expediately.

                The completed forms should when returned be accompanied by a list where the relevant ships’ names are given, and where it is distinguished between ships which at census time were lying in the distirct, and those which later came there. The forms should be stamped and numbered by the customs office which receive them. Even if all forms are not sent in collectively, they should be numbered continuously.

                We provide a copy of the memo prepared by the Office for foreign affairs, commerce and shipping in the Government’s Department for the interior on the 10th of this month to the Norwegian and Swedish consulates, concerning the enumeration of sailors aboard Norwegian vessels abroad.

                If the carrying out of census in some cases incur expenses for the customs office, these will be refunded according to the invoice.

     

    Kristiania, October 25 1900

    A.N Kiær

    Jonas Haanshus




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