/ UiT The Arctic University of Norway
 

Descriptions of the Population and Housing Census 1970

I Population by geographical divisions

II Industry, occupation, working hours, etc

III Education

IV Families and households
V Housing statistics

VI Evaluation Survey

REFERENCES

FORMS

The 1970 census publications do not contain copies of the enumerator instructions, but rather background material for the interpretation of the published tables. These were summarized in English, and included here together with copies of the census forms, since they indirectly also document the creation of the census manuscripts. Some of this information was skipped as redundant, since it was repeated in two or more of the six volumes. (In 1946 and 1960, virtually no background material was printed, while the 1950 publications are the last to render complete copies of the instructions and forms.)



I Population by geographical divisions

PRINCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS

I. THE FAMILY UNIT AND THE DWELLING UNIT

Family

The grouping into families refers to the date of census 1 November 1970. A family comprises:

    1. Married couple with possible unmarried children, registered as resident in the same private dwelling, old people's home, nursing home, boarding house, etc.
    2. Father or mother with unmarried children, registered as resident in the same private dwelling, old people's home, nursing home, boarding house, etc.
    3. Every single person not belonging to any of the two preceding groups.

Dwelling

A dwelling is generally defined as a room or a group of rooms built (or rebuilt) for one single person or for two or more persons with common boarding and lodging, and where there is access to the room(s) without having to pass through another dwelling.

II. COVERAGE

The census covers all persons (also aliens) registered as resident in Norway at the date of the census 1 November 1970. A person is registered as resident in Norway when he has taken up his usual residence in the country.

The data on dwellings comprise all private dwellings where at least one person was registered as resident at the date of the census. Consequently, dwellings which were vacant or where only temporary occupants were living (e.g. unmarried students staying outside their parents' home) are not included.



III. DEFINITION OF CHARACTERISTICS

When nothing else is mentioned, the information refers to 1 November 1970.

Place of residence

The persons are allocated to the area and the dwelling where they were registered as resident (had their usual residence) at the date of the census.

Type of municipality

The municipalities are classified on the basis of their location with regard to centres of different size and by the industrial connection of the municipality's residents according to the census information. Consequently, persons working in municipality A, but residing in other municipalities are not taken into consideration when determining the data on industry for the municipality A.

When classifying the municipalities, the following main categories of industries have been used (the letters and names refer to the 1960-edition of the Norwegian Standard of Industrial Classification which conforms closely to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Rev. 1):

    A, B. Agriculture and forestry etc.
    C, D. Fishing etc. and whaling (in the classification referred to as fishing)
    E, F. Mining and quarrying and manufacturing (in the classification referred to as manufacturing)
    I, J, K. Wholesale and retail trade, financial institutions and real estate
    L, M. Water transport and other transport and communications
    N, O, P. Government services, community and business services and personal services

In the classification the first three main categories are considered as primary and secondary industries, while the remaining three are considered as service industries.

Three levels of location have been used:

    a. Highly central which means that the municipality contains a regional centre (Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim, Stavanger and Kristiansand) or lies within a daily commuting distance of such a centre.
    b. Central which means that the municipality includes an urban settlement with more than 10 000 residents or lies within a daily commuting distance of such a centre. In addition the municipality must have a "reasonable" travelling time for a day trip to the nearest regional centre.
    c. Municipalities not satisfying the requirements listed above are considered as less centrally located.

In the following definitions the location is not taken into consideration for the types 1, 4 and 9.

Type 1. Agricultural municipality
A greater number of residents are employed in primary and secondary industries than in service industries. In addition at least one of the following requirements must be satisfied:
a. More than two thirds of the persons employed in primary and secondary industries are engaged in agriculture and forestry etc.
b. A greater number of persons are employed in agriculture and forestry etc. than in fishing, which again employs more than manufacturing.

Type 2. Less central, mixed agricultural and manufacturing municipality
More residents are employed in primary and secondary industries than in service industries. No single type of the primary and secondary industries employs more than two thirds of those employed in primary and secondary industries. Among these industries fishing employs the smallest number of residents. The municipality is less centrally located.

Type 3. Central, mixed agricultural and manufacturing municipality
This type satisfies the same industrial requirements as type 2. The municipality is, however, centrally located.

Type 4. Fishing municipality
More residents are employed in primary and secondary industries than in service industries. Fishing employs more persons than does agriculture and forestry etc. and employs at least half the number of those employed in manufacturing.

Type 5. Less central manufacturing municipality
More residents are employed in primary and secondary industries than in service industries. In addition at least one of the following requirements must be satisfied:
a. Manufacturing employs more than two thirds of those employed in primary and secondary industries.
b. Manufacturing employs more than twice as many residents as does fishing, which again employs more persons than agriculture and forestry etc.
The municipality is less centrally located.

Type 6. Central manufacturing municipality
This type satisfies the same industrial requirements as type 5. The municipality is, however, centrally located.

Type 7. Highly central, mixed service and manufacturing municipality
More residents are employed in service industries than in primary and secondary industries. Manufacturing employs more persons than any primary industry. The municipality is highly centrally located.

Type 8. Other mixed service and manufacturing municipality
This type satisfies the same industrial requirements as type 7. The municipality is, however, not highly centrally located.

Type 9. Other municipality
More residents are employed in service industries than in the primary and secondary industries. Primary industries employ more persons than does manufacturing. A map showing the classification by type of municipality in 1974 is given on page 19. From 1970 to 1974 only minor changes have taken place in the division into municipalities and in the classification by type of municipality.



Area of residence, urban settlement and cluster of urban settlements

A distinction has been made between two types of areas of residence, namely densely and sparsely populated areas. Densely populated areas within a municipality or a county consist of the urban settlements and possible parts of urban settlements located within the municipality/the county.

An urban settlement is defined as an agglomeration having at least 200 residents at the date of the census and where the distance between the houses - as a rule - does not exceed 50 metres. However, in some cases separately built - up areas which appear to be closely connected are classified as one urban settlement. Some of the urban settlements are located in two or more municipalities.

Urban settlements belonging to a common labour market, are grouped to form a cluster of urban settlements. An urban settlement is included in a cluster of urban settlements if satisfying one of the following requirements:

a.At least one third of the economically active population residing in the urban settlement, have their place of work in one or more of the other urban settlements of the cluster.

b.At least one third of the economically active population having their place of work in the urban settlement, have their residence in one or more of the other urban settlements of the cluster.

In the statistics from the census taken in 1960, "byer og forstadskretser som går i ett med byen" ("towns and contiguous suburbs") and "densely populated areas" totally located in rural municipality (and not being a contiguous suburb of a town), correspond fairly well with "urban settlement" as defined in the 1970 census.

The term "cluster of urban settlements" corresponds to the term "towns and suburbs" in the 1960 census and to the designation "urban settlement" as used by Professor Hallstein Myklebost in his study "Norges tettbygde steder 1875-1950".



Age Each person is classified by age as per 31 December 1970 (1970 minus year of birth).

Marital status The group "previously married" comprises separated, divorced and widowed persons.



II Industry, occupation, working hours, etc

PRINCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS

Economic activity

"Economic activity" means all work giving any form of income, as wages, salaries, income from own enterprise, pay in kind, etc. Included is work as a family member without fixed wages or salaries in family enterprise. Included is also compulsory military service, but not housework for own family. The group "with economic activity" comprises all persons who were economically active during the whole or a part of the 12-month's period before the date of the census.

Main source of livelihood

Each person is classified according to the main source of livelihood during the last 12 months before the date of the census.

"Income from own work"/"income from work" means receipts from economic activity.

"Pension, social security fund" includes health insurance, unemployment insurance, survivors' benefit for children, disablement pension, old age pension, occupational injury insurance, war pension, pension from enterprise, etc. Spouses who both had their own pension etc. as the main source of livelihood, are both classified to this source of livelihood.

The group "property loan, benefits" also includes life insurance benefits, rents, other income derived from property and all types of benefits and assistance, except pensions etc., provided by public bodies, enterprises and institutions to persons 16 years and over.

Persons with housework for own family during the whole or a part of the 12-month's period before the date of the census, and who did not have income from own work, pension etc., property, loan or benefits as main source of livelihood, are classified to the group "housework in own home".

All persons under 16 years and persons 16 years and over not having one of the specified sources as main source of livelihood, are considered as supported.



Income earner/non-income earner

As income earners are classified persons 16 years and over with income from own work, pension etc., property, loan or benefits as main source of livelihood. Correspondingly, persons classified to the groups "housework in own home" and "supported" are considered as non-income earners.

In the tables 1-5 all income earners are classified by their own main source of livelihood, while non-income earners are classified by main source of livelihood of the family. The families are considered to have the same main source of livelihood as one of the family's income earners. This income earner is selected according to the following scale of priority:

    1. Husband/father
    2. Wife/mother,
    3. Eldest son, second son, etc.
    4. Eldest daughter, second daughter, etc.

In the tables 1-5 persons belonging to a family without any income earner, are classified to the group "source of livelihood not reported". .

As a family are here considered (1) married couple with possible unmarried children at home, (2) mother or father with unmarried children at home and (3) each person not belonging to any of these groups.

The classification of non-income earners by industry/occupation in the tables 2-5 has been done according to the same rules as when classifying by main source of livelihood.

Housewives

Of the non-income earners, married women with housework in own home as main source of livelihood are considered as housewives.

Pupils and-students

Of the non-income earners, supported persons attending school or studying during the whole or a part of the 12-month's period before the date of the census, are classified as pupils and students, without regard to other activities (as for instance economic activity).

Working hours

The information on working hours refers to time spent on economic activity during the period 1 November 1969 - 31 October 1970. Persons who were working full-time all the period, apart from vacation and sick-leave of less than one month, are considered having full-time work.



General information on the classification by industry, occupation and status

Persons with economic activity are classified by industry according to the type of activity of the establishment in which they worked the whole time or the greater part of the time during the 12-month's period before the date of the census. Furthermore, they are classified by the occupation and by the status they had in the establishment the whole time or most of the time during the 12-month's period.

Industry

The classification by industry is in accordance with the 1960-edition of the Norwegian Standard of Industrial Classification, which conforms closely to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Rev. 1.

In figure 1, 2 and 3 "primary industries", "secondary industries" and "tertiary industries" comprise the following groups of industries:

Primary industries (figure 1): Agriculture, forestry etc., fishing etc. and whaling.

Secondary industries (figure 2): Mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction and electricity, gas, water and sanitary services.

Tertiary industries (figure 3): Wholesale and retail trade, financial institutions, real estate, transport and communication, government services, community and business services and personal services.

In the tables 16 and 24 "manufacturing etc.'' includes mining and quarrying, manufacturing and electricity, gas, water and sanitary services. The group "service industries" comprise financial institutions, real estate, government services, community and business services and personal services.

Industrial classification in English is given in appendix 1.



Occupation

The Nordic Standard of Occupational Classification has been used when classifying by occupation. This standard is principally in accordance with the 1958-issue of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). A translation into English of the occupational classification is given in appendix 2.

Status

The status group "employees" comprises all persons (also joint owners) employed in joint-stock companies, co-operative societies and corresponding enterprises with limited economic responsibility and persons employed in other enterprises, without being proprietor or unpaid family worker.

As employers and own-account workers are considered owners and joint owners working in enterprises with unlimited economic responsibility. Working proprietors who during the greater part of the 12-month's period before the date of the census engaged unpaid family workers only, ate classified as own-account workers. When spouses were working as joint owners in an enterprise with unlimited economic responsibility (e.g. a farm, a shop), one is considered as employer or own-account worker and the other as unpaid family worker. The group "unpaid family workers" otherwise comprises family members, except proprietors, who were working without fixed wages or salaries in a family enterprise.

Persons employed on 1 November 1970

The tables 25 and 26 comprise persons being economically active (incl. unpaid family workers) on 1 November 1970, except persons who served their time as a soldier and economically active persons not giving information on place of work. Persons with economic activity are included without regard to other activities as for instance schooling.

The figures in these tables must not be mistaken for information on persons with economic activity during the period 1 November 1969 - 31 October 1970 or information on persons with income from own work as main source of livelihood during the same period.

In table 26 the figures for the whole country and for the counties are totals of municipality figures.

Place of work

As persons with their place of work in a municipality are also included those without a fixed place of work, if having a permanent muster in the municipality for attending work.

QUALITY OF THE STATISTICS

In order to evaluate the quality of the census results, the Bureau carried out a post-enumeration sample survey. The results from this survey indicate that the census figure on persons with economic activity during the 12-month's period before the date of the census, is somewhat too low. The undervaluation is relatively extensive for the group of persons with less than 500 working hours during the period, while it is much smaller, but still significant, for the group of persons with 500-999 working hours. On the other hand, there is a comparatively small undervaluation of persons with 1 000 working hours and more and of persons with income from own work as main source of livelihood. The undervaluation is mainly found among unpaid family workers and among women with part-time or seasonal work in agriculture, wholesale and retail trade and personal services.

The classification of working proprietors according to the groups "employers" and "own-account workers" is uncertain. Probably, the number of own-account workers is somewhat too high and the number of employers correspondingly too low.

There is no reason to presume that the results published in this volume are burdened with other essential errors than those mentioned above. However, in general detailed data have a proportionally greater margin of error than the main figures.

COMPARISON WITH STATISTICS FROM POPULATION CENSUS 1960

In tables from Population Census 1960, persons with income from own work (own economic activity) as main source of livelihood, are designated as the economically active population. Also from the 1970 census data are given for persons with income from own work as main source of livelihood (but the term "economically active population" is not used). Data from the two censuses for this group of persons may be compared if taking the following into consideration:

1. The formulation of the question about main source of livelihood differs in the 1970 census from that used in the 1960 census. The main difference is that the replies to the question in 1970 should refer to the 12-month's period before the date of the census, while no time of reference was specified in the preceding census. However, this seems to be of less importance for the comparison of the figures.

2. Work done by married women as unpaid family worker is considered as economic activity in the 1970 census, but not in the preceding census. In the 1970 census there were about 29 000 unpaid family workers among married women having income from own work as main source of livelihood.

3. Opposite to the census taken in 1960, compulsory military service is considered as economic activity in the 1970 census. Persons serving their time as a soldier at the date of the census in 1960, were classified to the economically active population only if having income from own work as main source of livelihood before starting the military service. The classification by industry, occupation and status was also made on the basis of the connection to the labour market before the military service. If compulsory military service had not been considered as economic activity in the 1970 census, the number of persons with income from own work as main source of livelihood, would probably have been about 10 000 less than reported in the tables.

4. The questions about industry, occupation and status were somewhat different in the two censuses (corresponding to the question about main source of livelihood). However, in general this should be of less importance for the comparison of the figures.

5. In tables published from the 1960 census, unpaid family workers (about 36 000) were considered as employees. In the 1970 census these persons are classified to a separate status group.

Spouses who both had their own pension etc. as main source of livelihood, are both classified to this source in the 1970 census. On the contrary, in the census taken in 1960 only the husband was -as a rule - classified to this group, while the wife was classified to the group "housewives".

No other changes of any importance for the comparison of the data published in this volume with corresponding 1960 data have been made in formulation of questions, definitions or classifications.

III Education

Place of residence

The persons are allocated to the area and the dwelling where they were registered as resident (had their usual residence) at the date of the census. When nothing else appears from the tables, the persons are grouped geographically by place of residence.

Age
Each person is classified by age as per 31 December 1970 (1970 minus year of birth).
Correspondingly, age when marrying is considered as age as per 31 December in the year of marriage (year of marriage minus year of birth).

Education

The information on education includes completed, full-time educational activities of a normal minimum duration of five months or more and part-time educational activities of the corresponding duration. For persons who have completed two or more educational activities, the education with the longest total duration is classified as the highest one. Among educational activities of the same duration, the education presumed to be of greatest occupational relevance, is considered as the highest one. The classification is in accordance with the 1970 edition of the Norwegian Standard Classification of Education. However, the standard's second educational level; second stage (10-12 years' duration of educational activities) has been divided into the following three level groups in the census:

    2 Education at the second level; second stage I (10 years)
    3 Education at the second level; second stage II (11 years)
    4 Education at the second level; second stage III (12 years)

Furthermore, primary school; 10th voluntary year, is classified together with primary school; upper stage, while in the Standard Classification of Education it is classified to a separate group at the second level; second stage.

The following educational activities are grouped as general education:

    112 Primary school; lower stage
    114 Continuation school
    111 Primary school; upper stage (incl. 10th voluntary year)
    115 Folk high school; first course
    215 Folk high school; second course and advanced course
    216 Secondary general school; lower stage
    414 Secondary general school; upper stage

All other educational activities are considered as vocational educations. A translation into English of the educational classification is given in appendix 1.



Economic activity

"Economic activity" means all work giving any form of income, as wages, salaries, income from own enterprise, pay in kind, etc. Included is work as a family member without fixed wages or salaries in family enterprise. Included is also compulsory military service, but not housework for own family.

As persons with economic activity are considered persons who were economically active during the whole or a part of the 12-month's period before the date of the census. 1



Main source of livelihood

Each person is classified according to main source of livelihood during the last 12 months before the date of the census.

"Income from own work" means receipts from own economic activity.

"Pension, social security fund" includes health insurance, unemployment insurance, survivors' benefit for children, disablement pension, old age pension, occupational injury insurance, war pension, pension from enterprise, etc. Spouses who both had their own pension etc. as main source of livelihood, are both classified to this source of livelihood.

The group "property, loan, benefits" also includes life insurance benefits, rents, other income derived from property and all types of benefits and assistance, except pensions etc., provided by public bodies, enterprises and institutions.

Persons with housework for own family during the whole or a part of the 12-month's period before the date of the census, and who did not have income from own work, pension etc., property, loan or benefits, as main source of livelihood, are classified to the group "housework in own home".

Persons not having one of the specified sources as main source of livelihood, are considered supported.

Housewives

Of the persons with housework in own home as main source of livelihood, married women are considered housewives.

Working hours

The working hours refer to time spent on economic activity during the period 1 November 1969 -

31 October 1970. Persons who were working full-time all the period, apart from vacation and sick-leave of less than one month, are considered having full-time work.



General information on the classification by industry, occupation and status

Persons with economic activity are classified by industry according to the type of activity of the establishment in which they were engaged the whole time or the greater part of the time during the 12-month's period before the date of the census. Furthermore, they are classified to the occupation and to the status they had in the establishment the whole time or most of the time during the 12-month's period.

Industry

The classification by industry is in accordance with the 1960-edition of the Norwegian Standard of Industrial Classification, which conforms closely to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Rev. 1.

Occupation

The Nordic Standard of Occupational Classification has been used when classifying by

occupation. This standard is principally in accordance with the 1958-issue of the International

Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO).

Status

The status group "employees" comprises all persons (also co-owners) employed in joint-stock companies, co-operative societies and corresponding enterprises with limited economic responsibility, and persons employed in other enterprises, without being proprietor or unpaid family worker.

As employers and own-account workers are considered owners and co-owners working in enterprises with unlimited economic responsibility. .Working proprietors who during the greater part of the 12-month's period before the date of the census engaged unpaid family workers only, are classified as own-account workers. When spouses were working as co-owners in an enterprise with unlimited economic responsibility (e.g. a farm, a shop), one is considered as employer or own-account worker and the other as unpaid family worker. Otherwise, the group "unpaid family workers" comprises family members, except proprietors, who were working without fixed wages or salaries in a family enterprise.

Pupils and students (table 12)

In table 12, all persons who were schooling or studying during the whole or a part of the 12-month's period before the date of the census are grouped as pupils and students, without regard to other activities (as for instance economic activity).

Persons schooling or studying on 1 November 1970 (the tables 21 and 22) ,

In the tables 21 and 22, the number of persons schooling or studying on 1 November 1970 also includes persons who at the same time were economically active or performed other activities. It should be pointed out that the figures in these tables refer to 1 November 1970, while the data on pupils and students in table 12 refer to the 12-month's period before the date of the census.



III. THE QUALITY OF THE STATISTICS

In order to evaluate the quality of the census data, the Bureau carried out a post-enumeration sample survey. Results from this survey indicate that the total numbers both of men and women with primary school; lower stage, primary school; upper stage and secondary general school; lower stage respectively, as highest general education completed, have insignificant errors. On the other hand, the corresponding figures on persons with continuation school seem to be somewhat too low, while the total numbers of persons with secondary general school; upper stage are probably somewhat too high. Concerning folk high school education, the deviations differ more between men and women. The total number of persons with first course seems to be somewhat too high for men, while the error is unimportant for women. On the other hand, the number of men with second course/advanced course is probably too low and the corresponding number of women too high.

Furthermore, the sample survey indicates that the census figure on persons with vocational education completed is undervaluated. The undervaluation is - totally - greatest both for men and women with the highest vocational education at level no. 1, 3 and 6 and for men with highest vocational education at level no. 4.

Results from the survey also indicate that the census figure on persons with economic activity during the 12-month's period before the date of the census, is somewhat too low. The undervaluation is relatively extensive for the group of persons with less than 500 working hours during the period, while it is much smaller, but still significant, for the group of persons with 500 - 999 working hours. On the other hand, there is a comparatively small undervaluation of persons with 1 000 working hours and more and of persons with income from own work as main source of livelihood. The undervaluation is mainly found among unpaid family workers and among women with part-time or seasonal work in agriculture, wholesale and retail trade and personal services.

The classification of working proprietors according to the groups ''employers" and "own-account workers" is uncertain. Probably, the number of own-account workers is somewhat too high and the number of employers correspondingly too low.

In general, detailed data have a relatively greater margin of error than the main figures.



IV. COMPARISON WITH STATISTICS FROM POPULATION CENSUS 1960

In the 1970 census the classification by type of municipality is based on other principles than those used in the Population Census 1960.

The figures on general education are comparable with corresponding data from the 1960 census. On the other hand, the figures on vocational education and highest education may not as a general rule be compared directly with data from the preceding census. This is partly due to the fact that the 1970 census comprises educational activities of a normal duration of at least five months, while the lower limit was one school year in 1960. Also the classification by type of vocational education differs in the two censuses.

In tables from the 1960 census, persons with income from own work as main source of livelihood are designated as the economically active population. Also from the 1970 census data are given for persons with income from own work as main source of livelihood, but the term "economically active population" is not used. However, the principles for the limitation of this group of persons were somewhat different in the two censuses. In Population and Housing Census 1970 Volume II, further details are given about these deviations and some other differences concerning the information on main source of livelihood, industry, occupation and status.

IV Families and housholds

PRINCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS



I. THE HOUSEHOLD AND FAMILY UNITS

Household

A distinction has been made between three groups of household, namely private households, institutional households and households which comprise persons without a permanent residence.

The unit "private household" coincides with the dwelling household unit, i.e. the aggregate number of persons registered as resident (having their usual residence) in the same private dwelling composes one private household. A dwelling is generally defined as a room or a group of rooms built (or rebuilt) for one person or for two or more persons with common boarding and lodging, and where there is access to the room(s) without having to pass through another dwelling. "Private dwellings" means dwellings for other persons than inmates of children's home, old people's home, nursing home, etc. and boarders and lodgers in lodging houses, etc.

An institutional household comprises - as a rule - all inmates registered as resident in the same house of a children's home, old people's home, nursing home, etc., or all boarders and lodgers registered as resident in the same lodging house, etc.

Each person without a permanent residence is considered to form a separate household.

Family

As a family is considered:

    1. Married couple with possible unmarried children, registered as resident in the same private dwelling or institutional household.
    2. Father or mother with unmarried children, registered as resident in the same private dwelling or institutional household.
    3. Each person not belonging to any of the two preceding groups (including persons without a permanent residence).
    Unmarried mother/father residing together with unmarried child(ren), is always grouped to a separate family together with the child(ren), and never included in the family of one or both of her/ his parents.

As children are also considered adopted children and step-children, but not foster children.

When grouping persons into families, the age of the children has not been taken into consideration.



II. COVERAGE

The census covers all persons (also aliens) registered as resident in Norway at the date of the census 1 November 1970, and the households and families composed by these persons. A person is registered as resident in Norway when he has taken up his usual residence in the country.

The number of married couples comprises married couples being grouped into the same family and does not include married couples who have been registered as residing separately.



III. DEFINITION OF CHARACTERISTICS

1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

2. HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS

Type of household

Private households and institutional households are classified by type.

The private households are classified according to the number of families in the household and the type(s) of family that the household comprises. Private households with two families are also classified by subtypes on the basis of the relationship between the families.

Four types of institutional households are used, (1) children's home, (2) old people's home, nursing home, (3) lodging house, etc. and (4) other institutional household.



Size of household

With size of household is meant the aggregate number of persons (registered as resident) in the household.

3. FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS

Sole-, primary and secondary family

A sole-family is the family in a private household with one family only. In private households with two or more families, the family of the possessor of the dwelling is considered as primary family and the other family(-ies) as secondary family(-ies).

Families related / not related

In private households with two families, the families are considered to be related if at least one person in the secondary family is related to the possessor of the dwelling and/or the spouse of the possessor.

Type of family

A distinction has been made between two main types of family, namely family with single person and family nucleus. All families with one person only are grouped as "single person", while all other families are considered as a family nucleus.

    The family nuclei are classified by the following subtypes:
    1. Married couple without unmarried children at home
    2. Married couple with unmarried child(ren) at home
    3. Mother with unmarried child(ren) at home
    4. Father with unmarried child(ren) at home

Size of family

With size of family is meant the aggregate number of persons grouped into the same family unit.

Number of unmarried children

Families consisting of married couple/mother/father and unmarried children residing at home are classified both by the aggregate number of children (irrespective of the age of the children) and by the number of children in various groups of age. Consequently, also families with unmarried or previously married mother/father and unmarried child(ren) are grouped by the number of children in the family. Single persons are always classified to the group "0 children", also when the person is not an adult.



4. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS

Status in the household

In each private dwelling one and only one person is considered as possessor of the dwelling. Possessor of dwelling is the person or one of the persons who is owning, renting, etc. the dwelling where he/she is residing. The other occupants of the dwelling are classified by status in the household according to the relationship to the possessor of the dwelling. As child is considered all children residing at home (inclusive married and previously married), without regard to the fact whether they belong to the same family or not. Adopted children and step-children are included too, but not foster children. The group "other relative" also comprises persons related in - law and persons being related directly only to the spouse of the possessor of the dwelling.

Status

In table 16, a further distribution by the two status groups "employee" and "proprietor, unpaid family worker" is given for some of the major occupational groups.

The status group "employee" comprises all persons (also joint owners) employed in joint-stock companies, co-operative societies and corresponding enterprises with limited economic responsibility and persons employed in other enterprises without being proprietor or unpaid family worker.

As proprietors are considered owners and joint owners working in enterprises with unlimited economic responsibility.

"Unpaid family worker" means a family member who is working without fixed wages or salaries in a family enterprise without being proprietor.

IV. THE POSSIBILITIES OF COMPARISON WITH STATISTICS FROM POPULATION CENSUS 1960

The definition of the household units in the census in 1970 differs from that used in the 1960 census.

In the census of 1960, a private household was defined as the housekeeping unit within a private dwelling. Consequently, in this census two or more private households could be found in the same dwelling, while the units "private household" ("dwelling household") and "dwelling" are identical in the 1970 census.

From the census in 1960, information is available for institutional households both on resident population (persons registered as resident) and present - in - area population. To the last census, information was collected on persons registered as resident only. In 1960 an institutional household comprised the whole resident population/present - in - area population participating in the same common household, irrespective of the fact whether the persons were occupying one or more houses. As mentioned before, this household unit is in 1970 limited only to comprise inmates of institutions, etc. and boarders and lodgers in lodging houses, etc., registered as resident in the same house. While personnel of institutional households always are classified to a private household (or as a person without a permanent residence) in the 1970 census, some institutional personnel was included among the resident population of institutional households in the preceding census. Furthermore, a few inmates of institutions, etc., who according to the rules in 1970 would have been registered as resident in institutional household, were classified to private household in the 1960 census.

In the census in 1960, family nuclei only were considered as families. As mentioned before, also persons not belonging to a family nucleus are considered as family in 1970. On the other hand, the definition of family nucleus is fully the same in the two censuses.

Due to the different definition of the household units and the fact that persons not belonging to a family nucleus are considered as a family in the 1970 census only, the types of household are not the same in 1970 as in 1960. The types of family nucleus are exactly the same in the two censuses.

In tables from the 1960 census, persons with income from own work as main source of livelihood are designated as economically active. In this volume data are given also on persons with income from own work as main source of livelihood (but the term "economically active" is not used). However, the principles for the limitation of this group of persons are somewhat different from those used in the preceding census. In Population and Housing Census 1970 Volume II further details are given about these deviations and some other differences concerning the information on main source of livelihood, industry, occupation and status.

As a summary of this section it may be pointed out that of statistics published in the volume, numbers of households and distributions by household characteristics are not comparable directly with corresponding figures and distributions from the 1960 census. On the other hand, numbers of family nuclei/persons in family nuclei and the distribution of these units by family characteristics are comparable with corresponding data from the preceding census. Furthermore - as a rule - the distributions by personal characteristics may be compared.



V Housing statistics

PRINCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS

1. THE HOUSE AND DWELLING UNITS

House

As a rule the house unit comprises a building separated from other buildings from the cellar to the attic. However, each dwelling unit in semi-detached two-dwelling buildings and in row, chain, atrium and terrace is always considered as a separate house. Likewise each block of flats is considered as one house, irrespective of the fact whether there exists dividing walls from the cellar to the attic or not.

Dwelling

A dwelling is generally defined as a room or a group of rooms built (or rebuilt) for one person or for two or more persons with common boarding and lodging, and where there is access to the room(s) without having to pass through another dwelling. "Private dwellings" means dwellings for other persons than inmates of children's home, old people's home and nursing home and boarders and lodgers in boarding houses, etc.

II. COVERAGE. HOUSES, DWELLINGS AND OCCUPANTS

The housing census comprises all houses and private dwellings where at least one person was registered as resident (had his usual residence) as of 1 November 1970. Consequently, houses and dwellings which were vacant or where only temporary occupants were living (e.g. unmarried students staying outside their parent's home) are not included.

Information on number of occupants comprises persons registered as resident in private dwelling.

III. DEFINITION OF CHARACTERISTICS

2. HOUSE CHARACTERISTICS

Type of building

The type of building "dwelling building in connection with farming" comprises permanent dwelling buildings occupied by the holder himself or pensioners upon own estate. The remaining types of building do not include these buildings.

"Detached one-dwelling building" means permanent dwelling building with one dwelling and where the distance to the nearest building (excluding garage etc.) is more than half a meter.

"One-dwelling building in row, (chain, atrium,) etc.'' also includes the house units in semidetached two-dwelling buildings and one-dwelling buildings in terrace.

Permanent dwelling buildings with one dwelling, not belonging to any of the groups specified above (e.g. one-dwelling buildings lying wall to wall, without being row-houses etc.), are classified as "other one-dwelling building".

Horizontally divided two-dwelling building is a permanent dwelling building with two ordinary dwellings (which may be of different size) and where one of the dwellings is lying in a storey above the other.

The group "other small-building" comprises other permanent dwelling buildings with less than 3 storeys (excluding sub-storey).

Permanent dwelling buildings with 3 storeys or more are considered as a block of flats.

"Provisional dwelling building" means buildings which are designed for habitation for 10 years or less (including caravans, boats, tents and turf-huts).

The group "business building, etc.'' includes buildings where one half or less of the floor space is used for private dwellings, except institutional household building.

Institutional household buildings are buildings where common household is organized for the registered and/or temporary occupants. .

In some of the tables figures are given together for the two types of building "one-dwelling building in row, chain, atrium, etc.'' and "other one-dwelling building" under the designation "onedwelling building else". Furthermore, in some of the tables, the types of building "horizontally divided two-dwelling building" and "other small-building" are aggregated to the group "small-building else", and provisional dwelling buildings, business buildings, etc. and institutional household buildings are grouped as "other building".

The total number of private dwellings in the house

When classifying by the total number of private dwellings in the house, private dwellings which were vacant or occupied by temporary occupants only, have also been taken into consideration.

Period of construction

The houses are classified by period of construction according to the year in which they were originally built.

Storey

Attic habitable during the whole year is considered as a half storey. Otherwise attics are not included in the number of storeys. Sub-storey and cellar are never included. However, the houses are classified according to whether there is a sub-storey or not. As sub-storey is considered a storey where the floor partly is lying over and partly under the ground level, and which wholly or partly is used for housing purposes. A cellar where the whole floor is lying under the ground level is, consequently, never considered as a sub-storey.

Water supply

"Piped water in the house" means that the house has piped water from a waterwork, well, cistern, etc. All dwellings in houses with piped water are classified to this group, also dwellings without piped water.

Houses with common main conduit are houses which get water from a conduit being common for at least two dwelling buildings, irrespective of the fact whether the conduit is connected to a waterwork or not.

Sewage disposal

As houses with common piped system are considered houses which have a pipe-drain together with at least one other dwelling building, without regard to the empty (sewage disposal plant, lake, river, etc.).

0wnership

The group "housing co-operative, etc.'' also comprises houses owned by joint-stock company or co-operative society where the shares/parts give right of occupying a dwelling.

That a house is owned by private person(s) means that one or more persons have an unlimited economic responsibility for the house.

To other ownership are classified houses owned by joint-stock company or co-operative society where the shares/parts do not give right of occupying a dwelling, and houses owned by an institution, foundation, mutual society, common forest, limited partnership society, joint proprietors, bankrupt estate or estate of deceased person, etc.

3. DWELLING CHARACTERISTICS

Room

As rooms are considered rooms of 6 square metres or more, being habitable during the whole year. Also kitchen of at least 6 square metres is included in the number of rooms, but not lobby, hall, bathroom, alcove, bed-loft, etc. and rooms only used for business and professional purposes.

Toilet and bathing facilitses

Dwellings with private lavatory/private bath are dwellings where the lavatory/the bath is meant exclusively for the use of the occupants of the dwelling. As dwellings with shared lavatory/shared bath are considered dwellings which share lavatory/bath with one or more other dwellings. Lavatory/ bath (e.g. in the cellar) is considered to lie within the dwelling if there is access to the lavatory/ the bath without having to pass through another dwelling, common corridor, etc.

In table 18 and figure 2 dwellings with private or shared w.c./bath are considered as dwelling with w.c./bath.

Telephone

By telephone in the dwelling is meant that telephone is installed in the dwelling.

Tenure status

The dwellings are classified according to the tenure status under which the possessors occupy the dwelling in which they are residing.

Possessors (e.g. members of housing co-operatives) having a share or part which give right of occupying the dwelling, are always considered as tenant with share/part, also when having paid down-payment which is higher than the face value of the share/part.

Tenants with down-payment are possessors of dwelling who have paid down-payment in order to rent the dwelling, but not tenants who have only paid rent in advance.

Possessors who occupy the dwelling free of charge or as a pensioner upon own estate, are considered as tenants.

The group "other tenure status" comprises dwellings which the possessor occupies in connection with a labour agreement and which must be left when the labour agreement expires, regardless of whether rent is paid or not. However, dwellings in which the possessor has a share or part, are never classified to this group.

Type of dwelling household

A dwelling household (private household) comprises all persons registered as resident in the same private dwelling. The dwelling households are classified by type according to the number of families in the household and the type(s) of family that the household comprises. A distinction has been made between two main types of family, family nucleus and family with single person. A family nucleus comprises:1. Married couple without unmarried children at home

    2. Married couple with unmarried child(ren) at home
    3. Mother with unmarried child(ren) at home
    4. Father with unmarried child(ren) at home

As children are here also considered adopted children and step-children, but not foster children. The family nuclei are classified to sub types according to the four groups specified above. Each person not belonging to family nucleus is grouped ans "single person".

Own dwelling

Married couple residing in the same dwelling and where at least one of the spouses is possessor of the dwelling, are both considered having own dwelling. Otherwise only the possessor of the dwelling or one of the possessors is classified to the group "with own dwelling".

IV. AVERAGES

Rooms per dwelling is equal to the number of rooms (including kitchens of 6 square metres or more) in the private dwellings covered by the census divided with the number of these dwellings.

Occupants per dwelling is equal to the number of occupants registered as residing in private dwellings divided with the number of private dwellings covered by the census.

Occupants per room is equal to the number of occupants registered as residing in private dwellings divided with the number of rooms (including kitchens of 6 square metres or more) in the private dwellings covered by the census.



V. HOLIDAY HOUSE

As holiday houses are considered cabins, chalets, cabins for forestry workers, cabins for letting and other permanent houses, which are used for spare time purposes only and which may be used to stop-over for the night. The size and standard of the houses have not been taken into consideration. The information comprises holiday houses which are owned by occupants of private dwellings. Consequently, holiday houses belonging to enterprises with limited responsibility, associations, etc. are not included. In order not to complicate the data collection, holiday houses owned by occupants of two dwellings or more are counted as the same number of holiday houses. A holiday house where for instance two of the owners are residing in separate dwellings in municipality A and the third owner is residing in municipality B, is in the distribution by the municipality of residence of the owner(s) in table 21, included twice in municipality A and once in municipality B. Furthermore, the holiday house is counted as three houses in the distribution by municipality in which the holiday houses are located. However, the fact that a holiday house in some cases is counted as two houses or more, involves an insignificant over-evaluation of the census figure on the number of holiday houses.



VI. COMPARISON WITH STATISTICS FROM POPULATION CENSUS 1960

The housing census in 1970 has principally the same coverage as the 1960 census, both concerning houses, dwellings and occupants.

The house unit in the census in 1970 corresponds to the unit "building" in the 1960 census.

The only difference in the definition is that both dwellings in a semi-detached two-dwelling building and all the dwellings in the same row, chain, atrium or terrace were considered as one house in 1960, while in 1970 each dwelling was considered as a house in these cases.

The information from the censuses in 1960 and 1970 gives an uncertain basis for calculating the increase in the number on dwelling houses and private dwellings during the 10-years' period. This is due to the fact that the censuses do not include dwelling houses and private dwellings which were vacant or where only temporary occupants were residing.

In housing statistics from the 1960 census, data are given by urban and non-urban areas. As urban areas are considered densely populated areas with at least 2 000 inhabitants. Consequently, this grouping does not coincide with the classification by area of residence in the 1970 census.

The classification by type of building is somewhat different in the two censuses. The type of building "one-dwelling house" in the 1960 census is in the census in 1970 divided into two types, "detached one-dwelling building" and "other one-dwelling building". All the houses which in 1970 are grouped as "one-dwelling building in row, chain, atrium, etc.'' or "horizontally divided two-dwelling building", a greater part of those in the group "other small-building" and a few "block of flats", would in 1960 have been classified as "houses with 2-4 dwellings". The rest of the houses which in the 1970 census are included in the groups "other small-building" and "block of flats", would in the preceding census have been considered as "houses with 5 or more dwellings". No other changes than those mentioned above, have been made in the classification by type of building.

In the 1960 census, houses which had undergone thorough reconstruction were classified by period of construction according to the year of (latest) reconstruction, while in 1970 all houses were grouped to the period in which they were originally built.

Opposite to the census taken in 1970, sub-storey was included in the number of storeys in the 1960 census and considered as half a storey. Otherwise the definition of storey is the same in the two censuses. However, in tables from the census in 1960, houses with 1 ordinary storey and sub-storey are grouped as houses with 1 storey, and houses with 2 and 3 storeys also include houses with respectively 2½ and 3½ storey.

The grouping by density of occupation in the 1970 census differs from that used in the 1960 census. Therefore, distributions by density of occupation from the two censuses are not comparable.

While the 1960 information on bathing facilities includes both private and shared bath, the data for 1970 comprise private bath only.

The housekeeping unit was considered as household in the 1960 census, and not the dwelling household as in 1970. Furthermore, only family nuclei were considered as a family. Consequently, the groupings by type and composition of households are not the same in the two censuses.

No other changes of any importance for the comparison of the data published in this volume with corresponding 1960 data have been made in definitions or classifications.



VI Evaluation Survey

The aim of every statistical survey whether based on a sample or on a full enumeration, is to achieve results as close as possible the "true" values of some quantitative characteristics of the population studied. However, the producers of statistics are aware that the results obtained in a statistical survey, and in particular in a census, are not normally identical with the "true" values. Due to errors introduced during the collection and coding, the results suffer from a number of errors, which are only partly eliminated by editing and control of coding.

In connection with the Population and Housing Census 1970 in Norway, an evaluation study was done for two reasons:

    (i) To give the users of census statistics measures of the reliability of the results
    (ii) To analyse the errors in order to develop improved methods for data collection, editing, coding etc. in future censuses and surveys.

In this report we present an evaluation of data on economical activity, and on education.

In the evaluation study data were collected and processed by improved methods in order to determine the "true" values for a sample of persons from the population.

II. Survey design and implementation

2 - Population and-sampling methods

The sample represents all persons 15 years of age or more, and was selected as a stratified, selfweighting two-stage sample. The first stage consists of 93 sample areas drawn at random among 1 541 primary sampling units. At the first stage stratification has been made according to trade region and industrial structures into 53 strata with separate strata for Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim. From each of the 13 strata in Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim one primary sampling unit was selected, while two sampling units were selected from each of the remaining strata.

In the second stage 3 001 households were selected from the central population register, and all eligible persons in these households were interviewed. Totally 6 483 persons were selected,



2. Field work,

All interviews were performed in the period 9-30 November 1970. (Less than one month after

the census.) Households in which the interviewer did not reach all eligible persons were visited up to three times before the persons not interviewed were considered to be nonresponse.



III. Sources of error

1 Sampling error

One of the sources of errors in all sample surveys is sampling error, which is caused by the fact that the results are based on a sample from the whole population. Sampling errors are not calculated in this report.

2. Nonresponse

Among the 6 483 originally selected persons, interview was not obtained from 883 persons (13.6 per cent). The causes of nonresponse are given in table 1, page 8.

To evaluate the effects of non-response, the distributions of a number of variables in the sample, after withdrawal of the non-response, are compared with the same distributions in the originally selected persons. These comparisons are shown in tables 2 to 8, and show that the effect of non-response on these variables is negligible.

3. Presentation of the results

In the evaluation survey data were collected by trained interviewers and only the selected person was allowed to give information. The coding was done in the following way:

    (i) If the code in the evaluation study was equal to that of the census, this code was accepted as the "true" value
    (ii) If the codes disagreed in the two studies, the data were coded again, and if necessary, with help from an expert.



The results from this unit by unit comparison is summarized into tables with the following structure:

Population and Housing Census
(Denoted FoB in the tables)

Category
1 ---------- 2 ------- 3

Evaluation survey
Denoted KU in the tables)
Total
Category 1
Category 2
Category 3
A Number of persons according to the census
B Number of persons according to the evaluation study
C Number of persons equally classified in the two studies
D=A-C
E=B-C
Gross difference. Per cent. D+E/N
Equally classified. Per cent. C/A
Net difference A-B/A



IV. Concepts, definitions and classifications

Economic activity

"Economic activity" means all work giving any form of income, as wages, salaries, income from own enterprise, pay in kind, etc. Included is work as a family member without fixed wages or salaries in family enterprise. Included is also compulsory military service, but not house work for own family. The group "with economic activity" comprises all persons who were economically active during the whole or part of the period 1 November 1969 - 31 October 1970.

Working-hours

The information on working hours refers to time spent on economic activity during the period 1 November 1969 - 31 October 1970. Persons who were working full-time the whole period, apart from vacations and sick-leaves of less than one month duration, are considered having full-time work.

General information on the classification by industry occupation and status

Persons with economic activity are classified by industry according to the type of activity of the establishment, in which they worked the whole time or the greater part of the time during the 12-month's period before the date of the census. Furthermore, they are classified by the occupation and by the status they had in the establishment the whole time or most of the time during the 12-month's period.

Industry

The classification by industry is in accordance with the 1960-edition of the Norwegian Standard of Industrial Classification, which conforms closely to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Rev. 1.

Occupation

The Nordic Standard of Occupational Classification has been used when classifying by occupation. This standard is principally in accordance with the 1958-issue of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO).

Status

The status group "employees" comprises all persons (also joint owners) employed in joint-stock companies, co-operative societies and corresponding enterprises with limited economic responsibility and persons employed in other enterprises, without being proprietor or unpaid family worker.

As employers and own-account workers are considered owners and joint owners working in enterprises with unlimited economic responsibility. Working proprietors who during the greater part of the 12-month's period before the date of the census engaged unpaid family workers only, are classified as own-account workers. When spouses were working as joint owners in an enterprise with unlimited economic responsibility (e.g. a farm, a shop), one is considered as employer or own-account worker and the other as unpaid family worker. The group "unpaid family workers" otherwise comprises family members, except proprietors, who were working without fixed wages or salaries in a family enterprise.

Education

The information on education includes completed, full-time educational activities of a normal minimum duration of five months or more and part-time educational activities of the corresponding duration. For persons who have completed two or more educational activities, the education with the longest total duration is classified as the highest one. Among educational activities of the same duration, the education presumed to be of greatest occupational relevance, is considered as the highest one. The classification is in accordance with the 1970 edition of the Norwegian Standard Classification of Education. However, the standard's second educational level; second stage (10-12 years' duration of educational activities) has been divided into the following three level groups in the census:

    2 Education at the second level; second stage I (10 years)
    3 Education at the second level; second stage II (11 years)
    4 Education at the second level; second stage III (12 years)
    Furthermore, primary school; 10th voluntary year, is classified together with primary school; upper stage, while in the Standard Classification of Education it is classified to a separate group at the second level; second stage.

The following educational activities are grouped as general education:

    112 Primary school; lower stage
    114 Continuation school
    111 Primary school; upper stage (incl. 10th voluntary year)
    115 Folk high school; first course
    215 Folk high school; second course and advanced course
    216 Secondary general school; lower stage
    414 Secondary general school; upper stage

All other educational activities are considered as vocational educations. A translation into English of the educational classification is given in appendix 1.



V. Some results

The results of the quality check are given in sections V and VI above. In this section we

shall give a summary of some of them, and compare them with results from similar Swedish studies.

General education

It seems as if the number of persons with 10 years in school or less has been underestimated in the census. The same tendency was found in the Swedish Quality Check [3]. 91 per cent of all persons are classified equally in the quality check and the census.

Vocational education

The percentage of persons with vocational education is about 8 per cent higher in the quality check than in the census. Similar results are found in the Swedish Quality Checks from 1960 and 1970.

Economic activity

In the quality check was found 5.8 per cent more persons working 500 hours or more than was found in the census. The underestimation in the census is larger among women than among men. The number of persons working less than 500 hours is substantially larger in the quality check than in the census. In the Swedish Quality Check in 1970 the number of persons working 20 hours per week or more, was 4.6 per cent larger than in the census, also, a serious underestimation of persons working less than 20 hours per week was found.



REFERANSER

[1] Tamsfoss, Steinar (1970): Om bruk av stikkprøver ved kontoret for.intervjuundersøkelser, Statistisk Sentralbyrå. Artikkel nr. 37 fra Statistisk Sentralbyrå.

[2] Kontrollundersokningen i samband med 1960 års folkokning, Statistiska meddelanden B1964:16. Statistiska Centralbyrån, Stockholm.

[3] Folk- og bostadsråkningen 1970. Resultat från evalueringsstudierna avseende sysselsätting och utbildning. Statistiska meddelanden Be1974:3, Statistiska Centralbyrån, Stockholm.

[4] Standard for næringsgruppering i offentlig norsk statistikk. Statistisk Sentralbyrås håndbøker nr. 9, 1970.

[5] Nordisk yrkesklassifisering, Standard for yrkesgruppering i offentlig norsk statistikk. Utgitt av Arbeidsdirektoratet 1965.

[6] Standard for utdanningsgruppering. Statistisk Sentralbyrås håndbøker nr. 28.



FORMS